Glossary

Glossary

  • Actual Takt-Time

It is desirable that production targets be achieved within regular work hours, and the word "Takt-Time" refers to work accomplished within regular hours. When it becomes necessary, for operational purposes, to calculate Takt-Time for other than regular hours, that Takt-Time is called "Actual Takt-Time".

  • Andon

An electrical board which lights up to show at a glance the current state of work operations. Andon boards allow speedy corrective action to be taken by supervisors when a problem arises.
Besides indicating abnormal situations some Andon provide work instructions (such as quality checks, change of cutting tools, and conveyance of parts) and job progress information.

  • Continuous Flow Processing

The total amount of time required for a worker to complete one cycle of his entire job process, including manual working time and walking time.

  • Cycle Time

The total amount of time required for a worker to complete one cycle of his entire job process, including manual working time and walking time.

  • Fill-Up System

This is the system whereby preceding production processes keep a minimum inventory of finished parts, and produce only enough to replace, or fill-up for, those parts withdrawn by following processes,

  • Five "Whys"

The so-called 5Ws and 1H (who, what, where, when,why and how) are used in analyzing production processes. To search for the true cause of problems, moreover, instead of asking "Why" once, it is repeated five times.

  • Flexible Manpower Line

This means preparing a production line so that it can ncet changing production requirements with any number of workers, without lowering productivity. In contrast, a fixed-manpower line is one which always requires fixed number of workers, and no upward or downward adjustment can be made in it to meet changes in production demand.

  • Jidoka

Jidoka, along with Just-In-Time, is one of the two main pillars of the Toyota Production System.It refers to the ability of production lines to be stopped in the event of such problems as equipment malfunctions, quality problems or work being late, either by machines which have the ability to sense abnormalities or by workers who push a line-stop button. Preventing, in this way, the passing on of defects, reoccurence prevention becomes simpler as abnormalities become more obvious, making it possible to "build in quality at the production process". At the same time, since defects are prevented automatically,inspectors become unnecessary, which in turn results in significant labor savings.

  • Just-In-Time

One of the two pillars of the Toyota Production System, Just-In-Time refers to the manufacturing and conveyance of only what is needed, when it is needed, in the amount needed. This enhances efficiency and enables quick responese to change. Just-in-time pre-supposes Levelled Production (Heijunka). and is built upon the three basic operating principles of "the pull system", "continuous flow processing",and "Takt Time."

  • Kaizen

Muda(non-value added) exists everywhere, related to people, material and facilities, or the production set-up itself.
Kaizen refers to the series of activities whereby instances of Muda are eliminatedonebyoneatminimalcost, by workers pooling their wisdom and increasing efficiency in a timely manner. Kaizen activities typically emphasize manual work operations rather than equipment. Also, Kaizen is not an activity to be performed by specialists, but can be - and in fact should be - performed by all employees at each

  • Kanban

This Kanban is used to order the start of a particular job within a larger process, such as within the same machine shop. Its purpose is to make sure that the parts withdrawn by the following process are replaced by exactly the amount withdrawn, in the order withdrawn.

  • Labor Savings

This means partial replacement of manual labor by machines. The savings in labor, however, is not to the extent of saving one unit of manpower.

  • Manpower Savings

This means improving work procedures, machinery and equipment to free workers from particular jobs on a production line consisting of one or more workers. The manpower unit is "one worker."

  • Mixed-Load Conveyance

The term used when any plant transport vehicle is loaded with more than one type of parts.
Use of mixed loading makes it possible to increase frequency of delivery without lowering conveyance efficiency, i.e., without increasing the total number of deliveries. This, inturn,allows the amount of inventory kept at each process to be decreased. It also permits the delivery schedules to be more easily adjusted according to production changes.

  • Off-line Set-Up

Those parts of the set-up operation which can be done

without stopping the line or machinery. For example, the

work of preparing and putting away dies, cutting tools and

jigs.

  • On-Line Set-Up

Of the many operations involved in set-up jobs, this refers to those operations which cannot be carried out without stopping the line or machines.
Such operations include the actual changing of dies, cutting tools, jigs, etc.

  • One-Piece-At-a-Time Production

This refers to the system of production in which only one part, or one vehicle at a time, is processed or assembled and sent along the production line to. following processes.

  • Operation Standards

The general name for standard procedures and conditions of all jobs. Operation standards ensure that standardized work is carried out correctly at each jobsitc. The information is available; at each jobsite on worksheets based on diagrams, quality check standards, QC process charts, safety standards, etc., and are aimed at achieving quality, quantity, cost and safety targets. Common types of these sheets are work standards sheets, operation instruction sheets, quality check standards sheets, and cutting tool change standards sheets.

  • Operational Availability

The time that a machine operates maintenance free as a percentage of the time during which it is switched on. This is equivalent to the reliability of equipment and its maintenance.
The ideal condition is to have 100 percent operational availability during the time the machine switched on to fill a Kanban order.

  • Operations Management Engineering

The combination of methods, schedules and work techniques that will achieve the most efficiency with the given equipment, materials and workers in the production process.

  • Performance Analysis Board

This is a blackboard located at the job on which hourly production targets are recorded along with the actual production achieved. Details concerning problems and abnormal conditions can also be recorded. The supervisor checks the board hourly, takes steps to prevent the reoccurence of abnormalities, and confirms the positive effects of jobsite improvements (kaizen) that have been introduced.

  • Production Lead Time

This refers to the time it takes to produce one producWrom acceptance of order to shipment. It is defined as follows : Production lead 1 time=A+B+C

A : from order reception to beginning of work.

B : from begining work on raw materials to completing product (processing-!-non-processing time).

C : from completion of first to last piece of one unit of conveyance. (Takt Time for the product x the number of pieces in one unit of conveyance).

  • Production Sequence Table

Tliis is a table which shows the production sequence of different models on a mixed-model production line.B'asccl on the ratio of the "mix" of different models in theproduction plan, the order of producing different models follows a Heijunka. or levelled, pattern.

  • Pull System

One of the three basic requirements of Just-In-Time, the pull system refers to the system of manufacturing in which following production processes withdraw from preceding processes the parts they need, when they need them, in the exact needed amount.

  • QC Process Chart

This chart lists the quality control (QC) items - standards, specifications, and characteristics of each process - for building quality in at the production processes. It also includes the names of the supervisors and shop workers who are responsible for quality control, and the QC methods used,

  • Rate of Operation

This term states the actual production.levels being achieved by equipment. It is the percentage of total production capacity actually produced during regular work hours as determined by demand. This rate of operation itself changes depending upon sales.

  • Sequential Parts Withdrawal

Once the production sequence for products and parts is decided, those products and parts mustbe picked up from preceding processes according to that sequence.

  • Specifications Manifest

This paper leaflet is attached to a vehicle or product giving instructions concerning the parts to be fitted to the vehicle or attached to the product. The instructions are expressed in codes. The advantage of this leaflet is that the information and the product move along together.

  • Standardized Production Capacity Sheet

This sheet indicates the maximum capacity for parts processing at any one process. Recorded on it are the amount of time spent in manual work, the machine's automatic operation time;, the time spent in changing cutting tools, etc. It is used for calculating the capacity of each process.

  • Two-Point Control

This term refers to the coordinating by conveyor of the work relationship between two processes. In case I below, for example, a set quantity of work - three pieces of a particular part - is kept between two machines. The conveyor can feed only when Point B is empty and Point A is full so that no more or less than three pieces of work can bulid up between the two processes.

  • Value Adding Work (Shigoto)

Shigoto is the Japanese word for "work" or "job", but at Toyota it refers to any process that adds to the value of any production item, advances the manufacturing process, or contributes to the precision or quality of the processed unit.

  • Working Sequence

One of the three elements of standardized work. It refers to the sequence of operations in a single process which leads a floor worker to produce quality goods in the most efficient way.

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